Elements of art
Works of art can be analysed in a variety of ways. One form of analysis relies on looking at the visual elements of a picture. Often however, people simply cannot see them. You have to see these elements for what they are, the building blocks of a picture. And, they have certain predictable attributes…
The Elements of Art are usually listed as…
- Colour :: A visible wavelength of light with a Hue (colour) you experience; Saturation (colour intensity) and Value (relative brightness or dullness) of the light.
- Line :: A mark which is longer than it is wide. Lines have the properties of length, width (or thickness) and vector (or direction).
- Shape :: A flat (two dimensional) enclosed loop with either geometric properties (angles and curves) or natural and/or organic – with no regular geometric properties.
- Form :: A three dimensional shape with the properties of length, width and depth. A form may be geometric with lines, curves and/or angles. Alternatively, form may be of natural or organic shape, but without regular geometric properties.
- Space :: The absence of objects or things around a subject in your image. However, space does have shape or form of it’s own. It is defined by the objects that it surrounds or which contain it.
- Texture :: The surface quality of something. It can be seen and sometimes felt in a work of art.
These are brief explanations. Follow the links for more detailed entries on each of these (where available).
The ‘Elements of Art’ in the context of Design
Design, as distinct from art, has two slightly different elements. Designers consider the following elements as elements in their own right…
- Point :: Also known as a ‘mark’. They vary in size and shape, regularity or irregularity. On the other hand, artists consider a mark or point as one of the Elements of Art – a line. It just happens to have the attributes of equal length and width.
A designer may think of the use of point as part of a wider context, or distribution, of the same mark. Marks can be used to form a pattern (when grouped) or to imply lightness or darkness in an image (through use of colour and pattern density causing a lighter or darker ‘value’ – see above).
- Value :: To an artist, light has relative brightness or dullness – referred to as ‘Value’ in the element of art known as “Colour”. We view objects by seeing the reflected light from them. However, a designer has to express ‘Value’ through other means than actual light. So, they use pattern, density and colour to express ‘Value’ in an image they create. However, it is a facsimile of the brightness or dullness of the light (like shading for example) not the actual intensity of the light.
Note: on the distinction between the ‘Elements of Art’ and of ‘Design’
The distinction between art and design is a real one in the literature. I mention the difference here only so the reader can see how ‘Point’ and ‘Value’ might be used by a designer in a way slightly different to the definition above for the Elements of Art.
There is a distinction between these two definitions (the Elements of Art and those of design). For the photographer the distinction is not that critical. So, for the purposes of photos, it is probably more useful to consider ‘Value’ to be an attribute of our primary material, light – rather than as a separate element in its own right.
The value of light
In photography the Elements of Art can have a significant impact. Most of that impact is through the medium of composition. So, understanding the different components, or elements, helps us to grasp what it is in an image that we see effectively.
Composing with light
Of course the photographer is really composing images with light. Everything we do is seen in the camera by light, either direct from a light source or as light reflected from a surface. As a result the ‘Value’ of light is very important to us. However, we tend to refer to the value of light in terms of ‘Stops’. A stop is a relative term – we take the light level down and refer to this as stopping down.
So, unlike an artist we don’t normally refer to the level of brightness or dullness in terms of the value of light. Instead, we understand that it has a value, which we can measure. In physics we refer to the intensity of light – measured in lux. In photography we measure light in terms of exposure or the number of stops.
The principles of art and design
The Elements of Art tell us what goes into making up a picture. They are the building blocks, or structure, of the image we see. However, the ‘Principles or Art’ are about how you use and combine the elements in your image. You could think of the ‘principles’ as what you do to the ‘elements’.
(Note that different authors have a variety of ways to name and describe these principles. However, the core ideas are essentially the same).
Comments, additions, amendments or ideas on this article? Contact Us
Damon is a writer-photographer and editor of this site. He has also run a major website, a computing department and a digital image library. He started out as a trained teacher and now runs training for digital photographers.
See also: Editors ‘Bio’.
By Damon Guy see his profile on Google+.
Contribute A Definition?
Send us a definition for our list of photographic words and phrases. Simply write a clear definition and send it in. Include an original picture if you wish. Give us your name and a link to your website and we will credit your work.